Geographical position

Buryatia is located in the center of the Asian continent, between the boreal area of ​​Eastern Siberia and the vast steppes of Mongolia. Capital - the city of Ulan-Ude - founded in 1666. In the republic of 6 cities, 29 towns, and 615 villages. Distance by train from Ulan-Ude to Moscow - 5519 km, and to the Pacific Ocean - 3500 km. The modern airport and the Trans-Siberian Railway, which runs through the territory of the Republic of Buryatia, creating perfect conditions of transport links not only with all parts of the country and the European countries, but also with the countries of South-East Asia.

From west to east, its territory lies between 98 ° 40 'and 116 55' E The most northern promontory republic reaches 57 15 'N, and the most southern point lies on the River Chikoy at 49 55' N The total area of ​​its territory is 351.3 thousand square kilometers To the natural conditions of Buryatia has a significant impact position of the republic in the inner parts of Asia and the distance from the seas and oceans. Particularly strong influence on the formation of the natural conditions of Buryatia mountainous terrain.

Buryatia surrounds Lake Baikal in the south-east coast. Two thirds of the coastline of the great lake fall to Buryatia. Baikal has a unique flora and fauna. More than 2,500 different species of animals and fish, 250 of which are endemic to inhabit Lake Baikal and the surrounding area.

Unique combination in the center of Asia varied landscape - from mountain tundra to steppe - in conjunction with the world's largest and oldest freshwater reservoir - Lake Baikal, defines special importance and value of the region in the structure of the planet's biosphere.

To the north and west of the territory of the republic is washed Baikal, in the east by the Chita region, west and north - with the Irkutsk region, in the south-west - the Republic of Tuva, in southern borders with Mongolia.

Buryatia is a mountainous country, which occupies much of the south of Eastern Siberia, and is characterized by powerful mountain ranges and vast, deep and sometimes almost closed hollows. Almost throughout the predominate strongly dissected mountain, plain surfaces are found only in tectonic depressions and valleys of large rivers. Mountains area of more than 4 times the area occupied by lowlands. For the Republic of Buryatia characterized by a considerable elevation above sea level. The lowest level is the level of Lake Baikal - the 456 meters mark in the Pacific, and the highest - and covered in ice peak Munch-Sardyk in the East Sayan Mountains - 3491 meters above sea level.

Southern part of the country, represented Selenga Medium covers a large part of the Selenga River Basin - the main waterway of Lake Baikal, including all of its major tributaries, and is characterized by a predominance of mountains of medium height - 1000-1500 meters above sea level.

Adjacent to Lake Baikal Baikal region with high ridges separating them wide hollows. They now include the East Sayan highlands - this unique lifting, stretching from north-west to south-east for a distance of about 1000 km and a width in the range of 200-300 km, and rises in the central part of the ridge over 2500-3000 meters.

Mountain ranges in the republic have an elongated ridges, mostly from the south-west to north-east, in the direction of major tectonic fractures in the Earth's crust. Belt Mountains Baikal continue Khamar-Daban, Ulan Burgasy, Barguzin, Ikat and Baikal ranges. Watersheds Barguzin range are classic alpine relief.

Between Barguzin and Ikat ridges flowing river Barguzin on which the fall and spring vystuzhenny air rushes down the valley, with wind speeds of 25-35 meters per second.

Further north Baikal ridges continue Stanovoi Highlands: North and South Muya, Verkhneangarsk, Delyun-Uranus, Kodar.

To the north-east of Baikal region adjacent Vitim plateau. For the whole of Northern Baikal characteristic continuous permafrost that lies sometimes at a depth of 0.5 meters and a capacity of up to 500-600 meters.

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