Buryatia - a multinational republic, is home to 974.3 thousand people more than a hundred nationalities (on 01.01.2004.). The original inhabitants of the Republic of Buryatia is Russian, Buryat and Evenk. Titular - Buryats, who number in the world - about five hundred thousand people. The most numerous ethnic groups are Russian (665.5 thousand people., Or 67.8% of the population), Buryats (272.9 thousand people. - 27.8%), Germans (11.5 thousand people. - 0.16%), Ukrainians (9.9 per thousand. - 0.98%) and Tatars (8.2 thousand. - 0.83%). A small proportion of Belarusians (2.3 thousand.), Jews (0.6 thousand)., Evenki (2.3 thousand.).

Dynamics of the population in 20-80 years showed a trend of constant growth. Since 1994, under the influence of socio-economic and economic factors, there is a gradual decrease in the number of population. The growth of the population occurred mainly due to natural growth - a high birth rate with a gradual decrease in mortality. In some periods, significantly increased mechanical increase due to the large influx of people for the construction of large industrial facilities and transportation.

In the republic there are changes in the social composition of the population. The development of industry, construction and transport increased urbanization processes by rapid growth of the urban population, workers, employees. Their numbers over the past decade has changed as follows: by 1979, the proportion of workers was 66.1%, employees - 24.9%, farmers - 8.8%. Since 1989, a decrease in the share of workers and farmers in terms of economic reform. Due to the ongoing changes of ownership in the country the social composition of the population has undergone a sea change, and in 1996 is 12.4% of the population is engaged in a personal and private employment.

Buryatia is one of the small regions. Population of the country, with an average population density of 3 persons per 1km2 placed on its territory is extremely uneven. Most of the population lives in the central part, in the basin of the Selenga River, along the Trans-Siberian Railway. The density of the population reaches 6-7 on 1km2, and the north and south-west density averages about one person per 1km2. In the area of ​​basin. Selenga two-thirds of settlements and about 80% of the population. This placement of the population due to historically - from the seventeenth century, the first settlers began to settle in the valleys of navigable rivers (Selenga Chikoy, Dzhida), on the shores of Lake Baikal, and here came the first enterprise for processing of agricultural raw materials, fish, forests, laid the first cities ( Verkhneudinsk, Troitskosavsk, Selenginsk, Mysovskikh). The impetus for the further development of urban settlements has become the edge of Russian-Chinese trade and, in particular, the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Rural settlement Buryatia historically formed under the influence of natural and economic conditions, the traditional forms of land use and economic development of the region. In 1923, at the time of formation of the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, the rural population was 90.7%. Now in cities and towns are home to over 600,000 people, the rest - in the countryside.

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